PAKISTAN – INDIA ESCALATIONS

Brasstacks was a codename of a major military exercise of the Indian Army in Rajasthan, that took place in 1986 until its execution in 1987. It was the major and largest troop mobilizations of Indian forces in the subcontinent. Operation Brasstacks involved numbers of infantry, mechanized, air assault divisions, and 600,000 army personnel who were massed to within 100 miles of Pakistan. The magnitude and large scale direction of the exercise led Pakistan to assess that India was displaying an overwhelming conventional superiority and was planning to invade Pakistan. The Government of Pakistan viewed this exercise as a direct threat, so it quickly responded with maneuvers of its unified forces. During this time, Doctor Abdul Qadeer Khan gave an interview to Indian diplomat, Kuldip Nayar in which he made it clear that "Pakistan would use its atomic weapons if its existence was threatened. In Feb 1987, General Zia visited India, having invited to see a cricket match between the two countries and met Rajiv Gandhi.

The tensions diminished in March 1987, with an agreement by the two nations to withdraw 150,000 troops in the Kashmir area, followed by a second agreement to withdraw more troops in the desert area, which was also signed in the same month.

The 2001–2002 Pakistan – India was a military escalation between Pakistan and India that resulted in the massing of troops on either side of the border and along the Line of Control (LoC) in the region of Kashmir. This was the second major military escalation between two countries after Brasstak, following the successful detonation of nuclear devices by both countries in 1998. The military buildup was initiated by India blaming Pakistan to a terrorist attack on the Indian Parliament on 13 December 2001about which India could not provide any proof till today. Western, coverage of the escalation focused on the possibility of a nuclear war between the two countries and the implications of the potential conflict on the American-led "Global War on Terrorism" in nearby Afghanistan. Tensions de-escalated following international diplomatic mediation which resulted in the October 2002 withdrawal of Indian and Pakistani troops from the international border.

After the 2008 Mumbai attacks, India accused Pakistan for coordinating the attacks through a terrorist named Ajmal Qisab which later on, was recognized as Indian citizen. The accusations lead to strained relations between the two countries for a period of time. The accusations were taken seriously by the International Community, resulting in the United States to call for probes into it. Initially Indian reported that about 15 terrorist attacked a hotel in Mombai, however they declared only one of them as Pakistani whereas they did not speak about rest of 14 terrorists till today. Basically, like always, it proved to be an episode of blame game against Pakistan. Tensions de-escalated following international diplomatic mediation which resulted in withdrawal of Indian and Pakistani troops from the international border.

Pakistan and India are engaged in an ongoing military confrontation in the disputed over Kashmir region the heightened tensions stem from a suicide car bombing that happened on 14 February 2019. In the bombing, a militant from Jammu and Kashmir killed 40 Indian Central Reserve Police Force members in Pulwama. Like previous episodes, without going into details India blamed Pakistan behind the scene and forgot its atrocities being inflicted of innocent people of Kashmir. On 26 February the Indian Air Force violated air space of Pakistan for the first time since 1971. India claimed that it conducted a surgical strike against an alleged terrorist training camp but could not provide any proof, once asked by domestic and international media. Very next day Pakistani fighter aircrafts conducted successful air strike in Indian occupied Kashmir area where Indian ammunition dumps were targeted, intentionally causing no causality. Two Indian fighter air crafts were shot down and one Indian Pilot named Abhinandan was apprehended, however he was handed over to India next day.